Archives de catégorie : Etudes internationales

Monitoring online hate speech: Facebook complied with EU standards, Twitter failed – MEDIA AGAINST HATE

Published on 2017-06-06
On Thursday (01/06/2017) EU Commissioner Vera Jourova presented the results of the second review of the code of conduct combating illegal online hate speech. “A year ago, when we launched it, there was a lot of skepticism. Some thought it could be a step towards censorship on the Internet, but today’s results are encouraging,” said Jourova. On average, in 59 % of the cases, the IT companies removed illegal content flagged to them. This is more than twice the level of 28 % that was recorded six months earlier.

IT companies, such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Microsoft last year signed up to the voluntary code to take action in Europe within 24 hours, following rising concerns about the increase of racist and xenophobic content on social media which was triggered by the refugee crisis and attacks in Western Europe. After signing the code they became be responsible to have either regulations or guidelines to make clear that “promotion of incitement to violence and hateful conduct” is prohibited.

According to the last findings, the amount of notifications reviewed within 24 hours improved from 40 % to 51 % over the last six months, but the results vary between companies. “While Facebook fulfills the commitments on a swift check and removal and is the only one that fully achieves the target of reviewing the majority of notifications within the day, others need to further approve removal rates and act quicker,” reported Jourova.

Twitter removed hate speech from its network less than 40 percent of the time after such content had been flagged to the company. That shows significant improvement from the last year’s study, which found that it removed a mere 19 percent of hate speech when notified, but it still failed to meet the European standard.

Companies are also taking better into account the content, flagged by general public, as before they mainly considered content flagged by trusted reporters, and try to give more feedback on how the notifications are assessed.

The European Commission and IT companies both pointed out the importance of freedom of expression when the code was published. However, in a comprehensive review of the Code, Article 19 concluded that such measures could still negatively affect freedom of expression and increase censorship by private companies on their online platforms.

In that context, Jourova drew attention to a recent survey which showed that 75 % of those participating in debates online had come across episodes of hate speech, abuse, threat, which deterred them from engaging in online discussion. “So we are not limiting free speech, but enabling it, fostering more discussions and exchange. Radicalization of young people also happens a lot online, so this is a fight against terrorism as well,” she concluded.

The Commissioner will discuss the results of the second review with justice ministries this week. In her proposal, she will focus on the following:

  1. to continue the monitoring in cooperation with civil society and IT companies,
  2. to work towards increasing transparency by the companies’ feedback to users on how notices are assessed,
  3. to promote and encourage cooperation between national authorities and IT companies namely through national contact points,
  4. and on outreach to further companies.



Source : Monitoring online hate speech: Facebook complied with EU standards, Twitter failed – MEDIA AGAINST HATE

Rapports – Cartographie des pratiques et des activités d’éducation aux médias dans l’UE-28 – Observatoire européen de l’audiovisuel

Publié: 28/03/2017

Un projet mené par l’Observatoire européen de l’audiovisuel et financé par la Commission Européenne.







Cette étude a pour but d’analyser les diverses initiatives d’éducation aux médias prises au niveau national ou régional afin de dresser un état des lieux de la situation.

Il s’agit du premier exercice majeur de cartographie portant sur le sujet en Europe.

Bien que cette étude ne vise pas à couvrir la totalité des initiatives en matière d’éducation aux médias, elle présente une analyse détaillée des principales tendances, en s’appuyant sur une sélection de 547 projets impliquant 939 parties prenantes dans l’ensemble de l’Union européenne, identifiées grâce à un questionnaire adressé à des experts nationaux des États membres de l’EU-28.

Dans ce contexte, que fait l’Europe pour encourager notre éducation aux médias ?

Quelles mesures sont prises aux niveaux national et européen pour favoriser notre appréciation et notre compréhension critiques des médias de masse ?

Les résultats de cette étude sont disponibles dans un rapport accompagné par 4 annexes :

  • l’annexe 1 regroupe les synthèses nationales qui présentent les résultats des réponses données par chacun des 28 États membres de l’Union européenne ;
  • l’annexe 2 contient la liste des 547 projets présentés ;
  • l’annexe 3 résume les 145 projets « étude de cas » ;
  • l’annexe 4 comporte les réponses originales des 29 experts nationaux, qui sont accessibles dans des fichiers distincts disponibles sur le site web de la Commission européenne.

Lien pour le rapport.

L’Observatoire européen de l’audiovisuel a également réalisé une vidéo animée sur le projet:

Source : Rapports – Observatoire européen de l’audiovisuel

World Economic Forum : 8 digital skills we must teach our children

Source :

The social and economic impact of technology is widespread and accelerating. The speed and volume of information have increased exponentially. Experts are predicting that 90% of the entire population will be connected to the internet within 10 years. With the internet of things, the digital and physical worlds will soon be merged. These changes herald exciting possibilities. But they also create uncertainty. And our kids are at the centre of this dynamic change.

Children are using digital technologies and media at increasingly younger ages and for longer periods of time. They spend an average of seven hours a day in front of screens – from televisions and computers, to mobile phones and various digital devices. This is more than the time children spend with their parents or in school. As such, it can have a significant impact on their health and well-being. What digital content they consume, who they meet online and how much time they spend onscreen – all these factors will greatly influence children’s overall development.

The digital world is a vast expanse of learning and entertainment. But it is in this digital world that kids are also exposed to many risks, such as cyberbullying, technology addiction, obscene and violent content, radicalization, scams and data theft. The problem lies in the fast and ever evolving nature of the digital world, where proper internet governance and policies for child protection are slow to catch up, rendering them ineffective.

Moreover, there is the digital age gap. The way children use technology is very different from adults. This gap makes it difficult for parents and educators to fully understand the risks and threats that children could face online. As a result, adults may feel unable to advise children on the safe and responsible use of digital technologies. Likewise, this gap gives rise to different perspectives of what is considered acceptable behaviour.

So how can we, as parents, educators and leaders, prepare our children for the digital age? Without a doubt, it is critical for us to equip them with digital intelligence.

 8 digital skills we must teach our children

Digital intelligence or “DQ” is the set of social, emotional and cognitive abilities that enable individuals to face the challenges and adapt to the demands of digital life. These abilities can broadly be broken down into eight interconnected areas:

Digital identity: The ability to create and manage one’s online identity and reputation. This includes an awareness of one’s online persona and management of the short-term and long-term impact of one’s online presence.

Digital use: The ability to use digital devices and media, including the mastery of control in order to achieve a healthy balance between life online and offline.

Digital safety: The ability to manage risks online (e.g. cyberbullying, grooming, radicalization) as well as problematic content (e.g. violence and obscenity), and to avoid and limit these risks.

Digital security: The ability to detect cyber threats (e.g. hacking, scams, malware), to understand best practices and to use suitable security tools for data protection.

Digital emotional intelligence: The ability to be empathetic and build good relationships with others online.

Digital communication: The ability to communicate and collaborate with others using digital technologies and media.

Digital literacy: The ability to find, evaluate, utilize, share and create content as well as competency in computational thinking.

Digital rights: The ability to understand and uphold personal and legal rights, including the rights to privacy, intellectual property, freedom of speech and protection from hate speech.

Above all, the acquisition of these abilities should be rooted in desirable human values such as respect, empathy and prudence. These values facilitate the wise and responsible use of technology – an attribute which will mark the future leaders of tomorrow. Indeed, cultivating digital intelligence grounded in human values is essential for our kids to become masters of technology instead of being mastered by it.



La presse à l’école: une semaine pour l’éducation aux médias en Suisse

Découvrez le blog de Jean-Claude Domenjoz –été

L’étude JAMES 2014 vient de paraître: elle renseigne sur les pratiques médiatiques des jeunes. Youtube, Google et les réseaux sociaux sont leurs premiers canaux d’information. Le support papier est en baisse tandis que les supports numériques sont en hausse. La 12e semaine des médias à l’école permettra aux classes qui y participent de mieux connaître la presse et de s’initier au décodage des médias.



Les jeunes s’intéressent-elles/ils à l’actualité ?




Jusqu’au 30 novembre, l’UNESCO lance un appel aux contributions et aux recherches autour d’un questionnaire global sur les questions liées à l’Internet, telles que l’accès à l’information et à la connaissance, la liberté d’expression, la protection de la vie privée et les dimensions éthiques de la société de l’information. Ce questionnaire s’intéresse également aux relations entre ces sujets et aux possibilités d’action de l’UNESCO dans ces différents domaines.

Sur les sujets liés au mandat de l’UNESCO, les résultats alimenteront un vaste rapport sur les questions liées à l’Internetmandaté par les 195 États membre de l’UNESCO, dans le cadre de la résolution 52 de la 37ème conférence générale de l’Organisation qui s’est tenue en novembre 2013.

Votre contribution peut être envoyé par ce questionnaire en ligne ou à l’occasion des diverses conférences où l’UNESCO organise des consultations sur ces sujets. Vous pourrez également envoyer d’autres commentaires et questions à l’
A NOTER : Lorsque ce sera possible, les contributions seront mises en ligne ou référencées comme faisant partie du processus de récolte d’informations.